The Foundations of Financial Inclusion (working paper)

The World Bank

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Date Published 2012
Version Working Paper
Primary Author Franklin Allen
Other Authors Asli Demirguc-Kunt, Leora Klapper, Soledad Martinez Peria
Theme Financial Inclusion


Financial inclusion—defined here as the use of formal accounts—can bring many welfare benefits to individuals. Yet we know very little about the factors underpinning financial inclusion across individuals and countries. Using data for 123 countries and over 124,000 individuals, this paper tries to understand the individual and country characteristics associated with the use of formal accounts and what policies are effective among those most likely to be excluded: the poor and rural residents.

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