The Housing Finance System

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A. Primary Housing Finance Market

A.1 Industry Structure and Performance
VariableEnd of 2017End of 2016End of 2015SourcesVar ID
Types of originating lenders/market share:A.1.2
Are there (quasi) public mortgage lenders:YesYesYes
Housing Development Board Singapore
A.1.4
Non-depository financial institutions specialized in housing financeYesYesYes
Housing Development Board Singapore
A.1.4.3
Level of Non-Performing Mortgage Loans (90 days or more past due):A.1.6
Average 1997-2007 A.1.7
A.2 Size of Mortgage Finance Sector
VariableEnd of 2017End of 2016End of 2015SourcesVar ID
Total amount of home mortgage loans outstanding at the end of year in millions of USD:168,845.88 USD (millions)150,275.25 USD (millions)151,998.37 USD (millions)
Monetary Authority of Singapore
A.2.1
Total amount of home mortgage loans outstanding at the end of year as % of GDP (current)52.13%48.51%49.98%
Monetary Authority of Singapore and WEO
A.2.1.1
and as % of all credits outstanding25.41%24.48%21.65%
Monetary Authority of Singapore
A.2.1.2
Total amount of home mortgages made in calendar year in millions of USD32,880.59 USD (millions)24,360.22 USD (millions)23,067.27 USD (millions)
Monetary Authority of Singapore
A.2.3
and as % of GDP (current) 10.15%7.86%7.59%
Monetary Authority of Singapore and WEO
A.2.3.1
A.3 Housing Finance Products
VariableEnd of 2017End of 2016End of 2015SourcesVar ID
Mortgage products as % of all mortgages (approx.) in local currency:A.3.1
Most prevalent type of foreign currency mortgage used:A.3.3
Most frequent interest rates on fully amortizing:A.3.4
Typical lender fees associated with mortgage origination: A.3.6
Typical third party fees associated with mortgage origination:A.3.7
Loan-to-Value (LTV) on first mortgage: A.3.8
Maximum LTV909090
MoneySense.gov
A.3.8.1
Typical LTV at origination707070
MoneySense.gov.sg
A.3.8.2
Maximum term over which pmt is calculated? 35 years35 years35 years
Housing Development Board Singapore
A.3.9
Mortgage pmt-to-income ratio A.3.10
Maximum pmt-to-income ratio (HH income)  30%A.3.10.1
Maximum pmt-to-income ratio (Individual income)30%30%30%
HDB Singapore
A.3.10.2
Typical pmt-to-income ratio (HH income)  25%A.3.10.3
A.4 Lending and Servicing Process
VariableEnd of 2017End of 2016End of 2015SourcesVar ID
Does the mortgage industry use standard principles/guidelines for underwriting?YesYesYes
Monetary Authority of Singapore
A.4.1
Which institutions define underwriting rules? A.4.2
Central Bank/Ministry of FinanceYesYesYes
Monetary Authority of Singapore
A.4.2.1
A.5 Credit Risk Assessment
VariableEnd of 2017End of 2016End of 2015SourcesVar ID
Do credit bureaus exist? YesYesYesA.5.2
Is mortgage default insurance available?YesYesYesA.5.3
When did it begin operating?198119811981
Financial Markets and Institutions in Singapore (Eleventh Edition)
A.5.3.1
Are credit guarantee systems used? YesYesYes
Standard Chartered
A.5.4
Is there public sponsored MI / guarantee?YesYesYes
Central Provident Fund Board
A.5.5
B. Funding Sources for Mortgages and the Secondary Mortgage Market
VariableEnd of 2017End of 2016End of 2015SourcesVar ID
What are the main funding sources for mortgages?B.1
Retail funding (deposits/other)secondarysecondarysecondary
DBS Singapore
B.1.1
Wholesale funding: loans from other banks or corporations  Non-applicable
 
B.1.2
Funding through mortgage bonds   Non-applicable
 
B.1.3
Funding through securitization of mortgages  Non-applicable
 
B.1.4
Other primaryprimaryprimary
HDB / DBS
B.1.5
C. Housing Microfinance
VariableEnd of 2017End of 2016End of 2015SourcesVar ID
Types of lenders operating in the housing micro-finance (HMF) sector:C.2
Level of NPLs (>90 days past due) in HMFC.4
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Notes: Buyer's Stamp Duty Tax on the acquisition of a property is 1% for the first $180,000, 2% for the next $180,000, and 3% thereafter. The Additional Buyer's Stamp Duty Tax is 5-15%, depending on the category of the buyer. Seller's Stamp Duty Tax of 4-16% applies to residential properties acquired on or after January 14, 2011 and disposed of within 4 years of acquisition
Notes: Property tax is levied on the value of the property determined by the property tax department. The tax rate ranges from 0-16% for owner-occupied residential properties, 10-20% of non-owner-occupied properties, and 10% for non-residential properties.
Notes: The HDB offers up to two concessionary interest loans for households with average gross monthly income not exceeding S$10000. For Singles this is S$5000.
Notes: The HDB offers up to two concessionary interest loans for households with average gross monthly income not exceeding S$10000. For Singles this is S$5000.
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: 2010=100
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Annual Average Unemployment
Notes: Average vacancy of Private Residential Units in Core Central Region, Rest of Central Region, and Outside Central Region
Notes: Average vacancy of Private Residential Units in Core Central Region, Rest of Central Region, and Outside Central Region
Notes: Average vacancy of Private Residential Units in Core Central Region, Rest of Central Region, and Outside Central Region
Notes: Average vacancy of Private Residential Units in Core Central Region, Rest of Central Region, and Outside Central Region  
Notes: Based on MAS’ survey of housing loans for selected financial institutions, which account for over 90% of total outstanding housing loans extended by the industry.
Notes: Based on MAS’ survey of housing loans for selected financial institutions, which account for over 90% of total outstanding housing loans extended by the industry.
Notes: Buyer's Stamp Duty Tax on the acquisition of a property is 1% for the first $180,000, 2% for the next $180,000, and 3% thereafter. The Additional Buyer's Stamp Duty Tax is 5-15%, depending on the category of the buyer. Seller's Stamp Duty Tax of 4-16% applies to residential properties acquired on or after January 14, 2011 and disposed of within 4 years of acquisition 
Notes: Buyer's Stamp Duty Tax on the acquisition of a property is 1% for the first $180,000, 2% for the next $180,000, and 3% thereafter. The Additional Buyer's Stamp Duty Tax is 5-15%, depending on the category of the buyer. Seller's Stamp Duty Tax of 4-16% applies to residential properties acquired on or after January 14, 2011 and disposed of within 4 years of acquisition.
Notes: Capped at 30% of Gross Monthly Income
Notes: Capped at 30% of Gross Monthly Income
Notes: Central Provident Fund
Notes: Central Provident Fund
Notes: Central Provident Fund
Notes: Chapter 22, Banking and Finance, of the Commercial Law deals with Mortgages.
Notes: Chapter 22, Banking and Finance, of the Commercial Law deals with Mortgages.
Notes: Chapter 22, Banking and Finance, of the Commercial Law deals with Mortgages.
Notes: Chapter 22, Banking and Finance, of the Commercial Law, deals with Mortgages
Notes: Consumer rights are covered by the Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act.
Notes: Consumer rights are covered by the Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act.
Notes: Consumer rights are covered by the Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act.
Notes: Consumer rights are covered by the Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act.
Notes: Consumer rights are covered by the Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act.  
Notes: Consumer rights are covered by the Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act.
Notes: estimate of HDB flats; currently more than 80 per cent of Singaporeans live in HDB flats
Notes: for loans taken from banks and HDB to purchase HDB flats, the monthly repayment installment for all property loans cannot exceed 30% of a borrower’s gross monthly income
Notes: for loans taken from banks and HDB to purchase HDB flats, the monthly repayment installment for all property loans cannot exceed 30% of a borrower’s gross monthly income
Notes: for loans taken from banks and HDB to purchase HDB flats, the monthly repayment installment for all property loans cannot exceed 30% of a borrower’s gross monthly income
Notes: for loans taken from banks and HDB to purchase HDB flats, the monthly repayment installment for all property loans cannot exceed 30% of a borrower’s gross monthly income
Notes: for loans taken from banks and HDB to purchase HDB flats, the monthly repayment installment for all property loans cannot exceed 30% of a borrower’s gross monthly income
Notes: for loans taken from banks and HDB to purchase HDB flats, the monthly repayment installment for all property loans cannot exceed 30% of a borrower’s gross monthly income 
Notes: for loans taken from banks and HDB to purchase HDB flats, the monthly repayment installment for all property loans cannot exceed 30% of a borrower’s gross monthly income 
Notes: Housing Development Board (HDB) loan financed by Central Provident Fund (CPF)
Notes: Housing Development Board (HDB) loan financed by Central Provident Fund (CPF)
Notes: Housing Development Board (HDB) loan financed by Central Provident Fund (CPF)
Notes: If Purchasing a HDB flat with loan from HDB, the maximum LTV is 90%. If the buyer is getting a loan from a bank, the maximum LTV varies (60 or 80%) depending on the length of the loan and type of property.
Notes: If Purchasing a HDB flat with loan from HDB, the maximum LTV is 90%. If the buyer is getting a loan from a bank, the maximum LTV varies (60 or 80%) depending on the length of the loan and type of property.
Notes: If Purchasing a HDB flat with loan from HDB, the maximum LTV is 90%. If the buyer is getting a loan from a bank, the maximum LTV varies (60 or 80%) depending on the length of the loan and type of property.
Notes: If Purchasing a HDB flat with loan from HDB, the maximum LTV is 90%. If the buyer is getting a loan from a bank, the maximum LTV varies (60 or 80%) depending on the length of the loan and type of property.
Notes: If you are taking a housing loan from HDB you may borrow up to 90% of the purchase price or the property’s valuation price depending on which is lower (for resale flats), subject to HDB’s credit assessment
Notes: If you are taking a housing loan from HDB you may borrow up to 90% of the purchase price or the property’s valuation price depending on which is lower (for resale flats), subject to HDB’s credit assessment 
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident. 
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident. 
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident. 
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident. 
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident. 
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident. 
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident. 
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident. 
Notes: Median Monthly Household Income from Work (Including Employer CPF Contributions) Among Resident Households * 12. Converted to USD with average exchange rate. Resident household refers to a household headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident. 
Notes: Monetary Authority of Singapore
Notes: Monetary Authority of Singapore
Notes: Monetary Authority of Singapore
Notes: Monetary Authority of Singapore
Notes: Monetary Authority of Singapore 
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.  
Notes: Mortgage insurance is mandatory for owners of HDB flats if they are using their Central Provident Fund accounts to make monthly mortgage payments.   
Notes: New housing loans granted for Owner-occupied and investment properties. Sum of quarterly amount and converted to USD using average annual exchange rate
Notes: New housing loans granted for Owner-occupied and investment properties. Sum of quarterly amount and converted to USD using average annual exchange rate
Notes: New housing loans granted for Owner-occupied and investment properties. Sum of quarterly amount and converted to USD using average annual exchange rate
Notes: New housing loans granted for Owner-occupied and investment properties. Sum of quarterly amount and converted to USD using average annual exchange rate
Notes: New housing loans granted for Owner-occupied and investment properties. Sum of quarterly amount and converted to USD using average annual exchange rate
Notes: New housing loans granted for Owner-occupied and investment properties. Sum of quarterly amount and converted to USD using average annual exchange rate
Notes: New housing loans granted for Owner-occupied and investment properties. Sum of quarterly amount and converted to USD using average annual exchange rate
Notes: Outstanding Housing Loans that are Granted.
Notes: Outstanding Housing Loans that are Granted.
Notes: Outstanding Housing Loans that are Granted.
Notes: Outstanding Housing Loans that are Granted.
Notes: Outstanding Housing Loans that are Granted.
Notes: Property tax is levied on the value of the property determined by the property tax department. The tax rate ranges from 0-16% for owner-occupied residential properties, 10-20% of non-owner-occupied properties, and 10% for non-residential properties.
Notes: Property tax is levied on the value of the property determined by the property tax department. The tax rate ranges from 0-16% for owner-occupied residential properties, 10-20% of non-owner-occupied properties, and 10% for non-residential properties.  
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.  
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.  
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers only to households headed by a Singapore citizen or permanent resident.
Notes: Refers to household headed by a resident and Total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others  
Notes: Refers to household headed by a resident and Total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Subsidized flat prices for low income residents
Notes: Subsidized flat prices for low income residents 
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: Tenant and total includes resident households in dwellings provided free by employers/others
Notes: The Central Provident Fund, a compulsory contributory fuund for employees/ers, allows its contributors to remove their savings for the purchase of house.
Notes: The Central Provident Fund, a compulsory contributory fuund for employees/ers, allows its contributors to remove their savings for the purchase of house.
Notes: The Central Provident Fund, a compulsory contributory fuund for employees/ers, allows its contributors to remove their savings for the purchase of house.
Notes: The Central Provident Fund, a compulsory contributory fuund for employees/ers, allows its contributors to remove their savings for the purchase of house.
Notes: The HBD offers flats at subsidized purchase prices for those who qualify.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.  
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB established in 1960 is Singapore's public housing authority that plans, develops and finances public housing.
Notes: The HDB offers up to two concessionary interest loans for households with average gross monthly income not exceeding S$10000. For Singles this is S$5000.
Notes: The HDB offers up to two concessionary interest loans for households with average gross monthly income not exceeding S$10000. For Singles this is S$5000.  
Notes: The HDB offers upto two concessionary interest loans for households with average gross monthly income not exceeding S$10000. For Singles this is S$5000.
Notes: The HDB offers upto two concessionary interest loans for households with average gross monthly income not exceeding S$10000. For Singles this is S$5000.
Notes: The Housing Development Board, the largest housing organization is funded by the government of Singapore.
Notes: The LTV limit ranges from 20-80%, dependent on how many mortgages the buyer has, length of the loan, and the source of the loan.
Notes: The LTV limit ranges from 20-80%, dependent on how many mortgages the buyer has, length of the loan, and the source of the loan. 
Notes: The LTV limit ranges from 20-80%, dependent on how many mortgages the buyer has, the length of the loan, and the source of the loan.
Notes: There is no capital gains tax in Singapore.
Notes: There is no capital gains tax in Singapore.
Notes: There is no capital gains tax in Singapore.  
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.
Notes: Three credit bureaus were established in 2002.